Definitions of core terms in the data archiving context
Data archive or data library or data repository
- Definition: a centre of expertise in data archiving; some of them are listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories --> re3data.org; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_library and http://oad.simmons.edu/oadwiki/Data_repositories
- Definition: is the process of moving data that is no longer actively used to a separate storage device for long-term retention. Archive data consists of older data that remains important to the organization or must be retained for future reference or regulatory compliance reasons. Data archives are indexed and have search capabilities, so files can be located and retrieved.... (see https://searchdatabackup.techtarget.com/definition/data-archiving)
Bit (level) or bitstream preservation
- Definition: Bit Level Preservation: A term used to denote a very basic level of preservation of the digital object as it was submitted (literally preserving the bits forming a digital object) (see https://libguides.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/digitalpreservation/whatisdp, https://irods.org/uploads/2014/07/Principles-of-Archival-of-Digital-Assets.pdf published by iRODS, 2014)
Bit (level) preservation processes and strategies
- Definition: A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage medium. File formats may be either proprietary or free and may be either unpublished or open. (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_format)
Archive formats and archive files
- Definition: file formats used by archivers and compressors to create archive files. e.g. zip (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_archive_formats and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archive_file)
Archivable file formats
- Definition: **** (Examples in the collection domain: TXT UTF-8, ODS 1.2, XSD (XML based), SIARD (XML based), TIFF, WAV, PDF 1.7; see https://facile.cines.fr/).
Long-term archive format readability
Logical (functional) preservation, (format preservation, active preservation)
- Definition: The aspect of preservation management that is concerned with ensuring the continued usability of meaningful information content, by ensuring the existence of a usable manifestation the digital object. Sometimes referred to as format preservation or active preservation (see https://libguides.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/digitalpreservation/whatisdp, https://irods.org/uploads/2014/07/Principles-of-Archival-of-Digital-Assets.pdf published by iRODS, 2014)
Processes for functional (logical) preservation
- Definition: Active preservation which involves ‘actively intervening in how records are stored and managed’1. It aims to ensure continued accessibility. It basically consists of three tasks: characterization of the content (format identification, validation and metadata extraction), preservation planning (technology watch, risk assessment and establishing a preservation plan) and execution of the preservation actions².
1International Records Management Trust, Preserving Electronic Records, Training in Electronic Records Management, Module 4, 2009, p. 10.
2 A. Brown, Practical Digital Preservation – A how-to guide for organizations of any size, Facet Publishing, 2013, pp. 230-238.
Archive content integrity
- Definition: Migration of digital objects from one technology to another, whilst trying to preserve their significant properties which involves change in the configuration of the underlying data, without change in its intellectual content (in a reliability, usability and integrity way).
- Definition: software or pieces of software which extract data products from software systems and preserve them in the applicable archiving formats and tools which are archiving binary objects
Research data archiving
- Definition: Research data archiving is the long-term storage of scholarly research data, including the natural sciences, social sciences, and life sciences (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_data_archiving).
Open Archival Information System
- Definition: An Open Archival Information System (or OAIS) is an archive, consisting of an organization of people and systems, that has accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a Designated Community. The OAIS model can be applied to various archives, e.g., “open access, closed, restricted, “dark,” or proprietary. (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Archival_Information_System)
Archival Information Package (AIP)
Long-term data storage
Digitisation (see efforts of CETAF Digitisation Working Group, e.g., https://species-id.net/o/media/c/c8/Digitisation_definitions_for_collections.pdf)
- https://cdlib.org/resources/technologists/glossary-of-digital-library-terms/ (does not include the methods for usage of the object)
Archival of multimedia objects
Archival of text documents
Archival of relational databases
Preservation strategies http://www.paradigm.ac.uk/workbook/preservation-strategies/selecting-strategy.html
- Definition:, see http://www.paradigm.ac.uk/workbook/preservation-strategies/selecting-migration.html
- Definition:, see http://www.paradigm.ac.uk/workbook/preservation-strategies/selecting-emulation.html
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